Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect
calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter
methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants,
pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,
lactation, egg, wool, and meat production.
Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships.
Evaluation of protein quality. Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets.
Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation,
egg, wool and meat production.
Major and trace minerals - Their sources, physiological functions
and deficiency symptoms. Toxic minerals. Mineral interactions. Role
of fat-soluble and water – soluble vitamins in the body, their
sources and deficiency symptoms.
Feed additives – methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics,
hormones, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors,
buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters like hormones and antibiotics
– latest concepts.
Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent
advances in feed technology and feed processing. Anti – nutritional
and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis and quality
control. Digestibility trials – direct, indirect and indicator
methods. Predicting feed intake in grazing animals.
Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations.
Feeding of calves, pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies
for feeding milch animals during different stages of lactation cycle.
Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and
milk production. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and
finisher rations. Feeding of pigs for lean meat production. Low cost
rations for swine.
Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient
requirements for meat and egg production. Formulation of rations for
different classes of layers and broilers.
2. Animal Physiology:
Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion.
Endocrine glands in health and disease.
Blood constituents.-Properties and functions-blood cell formation-Haemoglobin
synthesis and chemistry-plasma proteins production, classification and
properties, coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagic disorders-anticoagulants-blood
groups-Blood volume-Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical
tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
Circulation. - Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds,
heart beat, electrocardiograms. Work and efficiency of heart-effect
of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and
chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart,
blood pressure and hypertension, osmotic regulation, arterial pulse,
vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonary circulation,
Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid- circulation in birds.
Respiration. - Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of
gases –neural control of respiration-chemo-receptors-hypoxia-respiration
Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods
of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological
constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-Urinary
secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-chemical test
for urinary dysfunction.
Endocrine glands. -Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis.
Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal
receptors-classification and function.
Growth and Animal Production- Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation,
growth curves, measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation,
body composition, meat quality.
Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion- Current
status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and
milk ejection, Male and Female reproductive organs, their components
and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
Environmental Physiology- Physiological relations and their regulation;
mechanisms of adaptation, environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms
involved in animal behaviour, climatology – various parameters
and their importance. Animal ecology. Physiology of behaviour. Effect
of stress on health and production.
3. Animal Reproduction:
Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination- Components
of semen, composition of spermatozoa, chemical and physical properties
of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors
affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents,
sperm concentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques
in cows, sheep, goats, swine and poultry. Detection of oestrus and time
of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeat breeding.
4. Livestock Production and Management:
Commercial Dairy Farming- Comparison of dairy farming in India with
advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized
farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm, Capital and
land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy
farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording,
budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy; Personnel Management.
Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle; supply of
greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm.
Feeding regimes for young stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals;
new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Feeding records.
Commercial meat, egg and wool production- Development of practical
and economic rations for sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply
of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and mature stock. New trends
in enhancing production and management. Capital and land requirements
and socio- economic concept.
Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other
5. Genetics and Animal Breeding:
History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis: Mendelian inheritance;
deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing
over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters; Blood
groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmic inheritance.
Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein
synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations,
methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate. Transgenesis.
Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative
traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic
frequency; Forces changing gene frequency; Random drift and small populations;
Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding
coefficient, systems of inbreeding, Effective population size; Breeding
value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation;
Partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype
X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements; Resemblance
Breeding Systems- Breeds of livestsock and Poultry. Heritability,
repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods
of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their
relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection;
Progeny testing; Methods of selection; Construction of selection indices
and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various
selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding,
out breeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing
of inbred lines for commercial production; Selection for general and
specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire
6. Extension: Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension.
Different Methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation
of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems and constraints in
transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.
PAPER – II
1. Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:
Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique
of tissue processing and H.E. staining - Freezing microtomy- Microscopy-Bright
field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology-structure of cell,
organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types- Tissues and their
classification-embryonic and adult tissues-Comparative histology of
organs-Vascular. Nervous, digestive, respiratory, musculo- skeletal
and urogenital systems- Endocrine glands -Integuments-sense organs.
Embryology – Embryology of vertebrates with special reference
to aves and domestic mammals gametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers-
foetal membranes and placentation-types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twins
and twinning- organogenesis -germ layer derivatives- endodermal, mesodermal
and ectodermal derivates.
Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX- surface
anatomy of salivary glands. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary,
mandibuloalveolar,mental and cornual nerve block. Regional anatomy of
paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibular
and digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial
lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal
and pelvic cavities-comparative features of locomotor apparatus and
their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation
to respiration and flying, digestion and egg production.
Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs - Cellular level of pharmacodynamics
and pharmacokinetics. Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance.
Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system. Modern concepts of anaesthesia
and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and principles
of chemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in therapeutics-
chemotherapy of parasitic infections. Drug and economic concerns in
the Edible tissues of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases.
Toxicity due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins
Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation -
Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil- Importance of climate
in animal health- effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship
between industrialization and animal agriculture- animal housing requirements
for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows,
milking cows, broiler birds- stress, strain and productivity in relation
to animal habitation.
2. Animal Diseases:
Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions,
diagnosis, and control of infectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat,
horses, pigs and poultry.
Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production
diseases of cattle, horse, pig and poultry.
Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction,
Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific
diseases- herd immunity- disease free zones- ‘zero’ disease
Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication.
Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia,
choking abomasal displacement- Caesarian operations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.
Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory investigation-
Establishment of Animal Health Centers- Disease free zone-
3. Veterinary Public Health:
Zoonoses. - Classification, definition, role of animals and birds
in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases- occupational zoonotic
Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application
of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control.
Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections. OIE
regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of
animal quality and prevention of animal diseases - State and central
rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases- S
P C A- Veterolegal cases- Certificates -Materials and Methods of collection
of samples for veterolegal investigation.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology:
Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing,
packaging, storing, distribution, marketing, defects and their control.
Preparation of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized, toned,
double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and
flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management,
yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized
milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk
and for the milk plant equipment.
Milk Products Technology.- Selection of raw materials, processing,
storing , distributing and marketing milk products such as Cream, Butter,
Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated, dried milk and baby
food, Ice cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk,
lactose and casein. Testing, grading, judging milk products- BIS and
Agmark specifications, legal standards, quality control and nutritive
properties. Packaging, processing and operational control. Costing of
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology:
a) Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter
and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection
procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts- grading of carcass meat
cuts- duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
b) Hygienic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat
and control measures- Post - slaughter physicochemical changes in meat
and factors that influence them- Quality improvement methods –
Adulteration of meat and detection - Regulatory provisions in Meat trade
Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods
of preservation of meat- Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of
meat and meat products, processing and formulations.
By- products- Slaughter house by- products and their utilization-
Edible and inedible by products- Social and economic implications of
proper utilization of slaughter house by-products- Organ products for
food and pharmaceuticals.
Poultry Products Technology- Chemical composition and nutritive value
of poultry meat, pre - slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques,
inspection, preservation of poultry meat and products. Legal and BIS
Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbial spoilage.
Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products.
Value added meat products.
Rabbit/Fur Animal farming - Rabbit meat production. Disposal and
utilization of fur and wool and recycling of waste by products. Grading