Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development;
endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s
crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s
interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis;
Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ; Denudation
chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development
; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the
world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric
stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet
streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones;
Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s,
Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates;
Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of
man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic,
Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat
and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine
resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral
bleaching; sea-level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.
Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and
distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation;
Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems
of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry;
Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological
adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and
regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management
and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation;
Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental
hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation;
regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative
revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and
welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural
regions of the world; Human development index.
Economic Geography: World economic development:
measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy
crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural
regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems;
Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries:
locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and
distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and
consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population;
Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social
well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural
settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts
of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns;
Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems
and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of
regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles;
Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental
issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems
analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition
models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch;Perroux and
Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s
model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth.
Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and
PAPER – II
GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA
Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with
neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds;
Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns,
Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic
regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy,
minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources
and their conservation; Energy crisis.
Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds,
fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure
and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural
intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry;
Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications;
Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution;
aqua - culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation;
agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors
of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper,
chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro - based industries;
Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings;
Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals
and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway,
airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional
development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade;
Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in
communication and information technology and their impacts on economy
and society; Indian space programme.
Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian
Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities;
major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth,
distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio,
age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity;
migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated
problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural
settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional
classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions;
urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems
of urbanization and remedies.
Regional Development and Planning: Experience of
regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development
programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area
development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert,
drought prone, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning;
Regional planning and development of island territories.
Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian
federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional
consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India
and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world
affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental
hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics;
Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land
use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental
management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation;
Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian
and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development;
Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness;
Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.
Note : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory
map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.