Relationships with other disciplines: Social Sciences, Behavioural
Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance:
(a) Social- cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.
Human Evolution and emergence of Man:
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre- Darwinian, Darwinian and
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts
of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s
rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).
Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy;
Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy;
Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living
Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes
due to erect posture and its implications.
Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution
of the following:
(a) Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa - Australopithecines.
(b) Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis),
Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
(c) Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt.
Carmel (Progressive type).
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo sapiens -- Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
The biological basis of life: The Cell, DNA structure
and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes,
and Cell Division.
(a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology: Relative
and Absolute Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution- Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age
The Nature of Culture: The concept and characteristics
of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural
The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society
and Culture; Social Institutions; Social groups; and Social stratification.
Marriage: Definition and universality; Laws of
marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types
of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions
of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and
proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
Family: Definition and universality; Family, household
and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the
perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and
succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist
movements on family.
Kinship: Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles
and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms
of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship
terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and
Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
Economic organization: Meaning, scope and relevance
of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles
governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution
and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing,
swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization
and indigenous economic systems.
Political organization and Social Control: Band,
tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and
legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.
Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study
of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism
and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion
in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism
and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious
functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German
Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora
- du Bois).
Neo - evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
Cultural materialism (Harris)
Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
Post- modernism in anthropology
Culture, language and communication: Nature, origin
and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication;
social context of language use.
Research methods in anthropology:
Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
Distinction between technique, method and methodology
Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire,
Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources
of information, participatory methods.
Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
Human Genetics – Methods and Application:
Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree
analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method,
chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological
methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor,
lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population,
Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency
– mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and
genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic
load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner
(XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and
Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic
counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of
non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in
relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification,
racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker- ABO, Rh blood
groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb
level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions
in different cultural and socio-economic groups.
Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations
– Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological
responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude
Epidemiological Anthropology: Health and disease. Infectious and
non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
Concept of human growth and development : stages
of growth - pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity,
- Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical,
nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.
- Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations - biological and
chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies
for growth studies.
Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility.
Fertility patterns and differentials.
Demographic theories- biological, social and cultural.
Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity,
fertility, natality and mortality.
Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports,
Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other
equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal
identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity
diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases
and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
PAPER – II
Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization -- Prehistoric
(Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic - Chalcolithic).
Protohistoric (Indus Civilization): Pre- Harappan, Harappan and post-
Harappan cultures. Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special
reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus
and Narmada Man).
Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology;
Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral
and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.
Demographic profile of India - Ethnic and linguistic
elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population
- factors influencing its structure and growth.
The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system
- Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
Caste system in India- structure and characteristics,
Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste,
Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system, Tribe- caste
Sacred Complex and Nature- Man- Spirit Complex.
Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
Emergence and growth of anthropology in India-Contributions
of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions
of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
Indian Village: Significance of village study
in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing
patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations
in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political
and economic status.
Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in
Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play
of little and great traditions; Panchayati raj and social change;
Media and social change.
Tribal situation in India – Bio-genetic
variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal
populations and their distribution.
Problems of the tribal Communities - land alienation,
poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities,
unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement
and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals.
Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal populations.
Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled
Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
Social change and contemporary tribal societies:
Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and
welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments;
Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy;
Pseudo-tribalism; Social change among the tribes during colonial and
Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions
on tribal societies.
Tribe and nation state -- a comparative study of tribal communities
in India and other countries.
History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans,
programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept
of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes
for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.
Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism,
communalism, and ethnic and political movements.