Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy,
Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific
literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors;
hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture
(neolithic and chalcolithic).
Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent,
characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and
farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements,
Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from
Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical
life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna
Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation
of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres;
Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism
and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire,
Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma;
Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture;
External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
Post - Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas,
Western Kshatrapas): Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres,
economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions,
art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South
India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam
Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and
urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art
Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration,
Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of
urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education
and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature,
scientific literature, art and architecture.
Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas
of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth
of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya;
Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas,
Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects.
Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas,
Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art
and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas,
Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages
and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major
philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the
Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs
The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
Agrarian economy and urban settlements
Trade and commerce
Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
Condition of women
Indian science and technology
Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita,
Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult,
growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature,
literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini,
Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
The Thirteenth Century:
Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions –
factors behind Ghurian success
Economic, social and cultural consequences
Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans
Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
The Fourteenth Century:
“The Khalji Revolution”
Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian
and economic measures
Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy
of Muhammad Tughluq
Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering
and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn
Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth
Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers,
women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti
movement, Sufi movement
Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages
of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate
architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite
Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural
production, trade and commerce
The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political
Developments and Economy:
The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society
Regional cultural specificities
Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul
and religious policy
Court patronage of art and technology
Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
The Empire and the Zamindars
Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
Nature of the Mughal State
Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
The Ahom Kingdom
Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
Population, agricultural production, craft production
Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies
: a trade revolution
Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
Condition of peasants, condition of women
Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
Culture in the Mughal Empire:
Persian histories and other literature
Hindi and other religious literature
Provincial architecture and painting
Science and technology
The Eighteenth Century:
Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
The Maratha fiscal and financial system
Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British
PAPER - II
European Penetration into India: The Early European
Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French
East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal
-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and
the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
British Expansion in India: Bengal – Mir Jafar
and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three
Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
Early Structure of the British Raj: The early administrative
structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773);
The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice
of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The
English utilitarian and India.
Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule: (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent
Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact
of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise
of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation;
Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation
of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and
postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European
business enterprise and its limitations.
Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous
education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction
of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public
opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science;
Christian missionary activities in India.
Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other
Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore;
Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati;
The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage,
child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth
of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movements
and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur
Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar
(1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan
Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt
of 1857 - Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The
shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period;
the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association;
The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis
relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early
Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates
and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement
in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement;
The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s
popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation
Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement
to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement; the two phases
of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report;
the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements;
Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and
students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the
formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the
Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.
Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and
Other strands in the National Movement
The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P, the Madras
Presidency, Outside India.
The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra
Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other
Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism
and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.
Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and
her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States
(1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely
States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward castes and tribes in post-colonial
electoral politics; Dalit movements.
Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics
of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy
in post - colonial India; Progress of science.
Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
Major ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau
Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies
Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
Origins of Modern Politics:
European States System.
American Revolution and the Constitution.
French revolution and aftermath, 1789-1815.
American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition
British Democratic Politics, 1815-1850; Parliamentary Reformers,
Free Traders, Chartists.
English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society
Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan
Industrialization and Globalization.
Rise of Nationalism in 19th century
Nationalism: state-building in Germany and Italy
Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities
across the world.
Imperialism and Colonialism:
South and South-East Asia
Latin America and South Africa
Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
19th Century European revolutions
The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921
Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
The Chinese Revolution of 1949
1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications
World War I: Causes and consequences
World War II: Causes and consequence
The World after World War II:
Emergence of two power blocs
Emergence of Third World and non-alignment
UNO and the global disputes.
Liberation from Colonial Rule:
Africa-Apartheid to Democracy
Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
Factors constraining development: Latin America, Africa
Unification of Europe:
Post War Foundations: NATO and European Community
Consolidation and Expansion of European Community
Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar
Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet communism and the Soviet
Political Changes in Eastern Europe 1989-2001.
End of the cold war and US ascendancy in the World as the lone